Τετάρτη 8 Μαρτίου 2023

Хиландарски Зборник 15 / Recueil de Chilandar 15

Садржај & Summaries

• Liakos Dimitrios, Mount Athos with shine : luxury artworks and their patrons (10th-15th centuries)
Љакос Димитрије, Сјај Свете Горе : уметнички предмети и њихови дародавци (X-XV век)
This paper deals with objects kept in Athonite sacristies, discussing an aspect of art patronage of selected Byzantine luxury items on Mount Athos between the 10th and the 15th century. An array of topics will be discussed, such as the provenance of the presented objects, the identification of their patrons (in case that they are not mentioned in the inscriptions), the motivation behind donations in specific historic circumstances and, finally, the patterns of patronage and endowments, using data obtained by art-historical analysis, information from archival sources and dedicatory inscriptions.

• Stanković Nebojša, Phialai on Mount Athos : the Middle Byzantine origins of their use, form and location
Станковић Небојша, Станковић Небојша, Фијале на Светој Гори : средњовизантијско порекло њихове употребе, форме и локације
Phialē is a water receptacle most commonly fashioned as a stone bowl and used for the Blessing of the Waters. On Mount Athos, it is customarily set within a baldachin-like kiosk, also called phialē, in the monastery’s yard. The oldest surviving such installation, at Vatopedi, dates to the mid-14th century. The phialē at Great Lavra, although constructed in 1635, most probably replaces and reproduces the original one from 1060. Therefore, an outdoor phialē seems to have been a standard feature of an Athonite monastery complex from the very beginning. The paper examines the phialē’s notable location in the area between the church’s entrance and the refectory, some elements of its design, and the outdoor position in relation to the supply of running water. Beyond these technical reasons, some functional (liturgical), symbolical (theological), and historical aspects are also discussed as likely factors contributing to the concept and use of this architectural feature in the Middle Byzantine period.

• Theocharidis Plutarchos, Buildings and building remains on Mount Athos associated with the ktetoric activity of St Sava of Serbia
Теохаридис Плутарх, Грађевине и остаци грађевина на Светој Гори повезани с ктиторском делатношћу светог Саве Српског
The article presents an archaeological testimony from the monasteries of Vatopedi, Xeropotamou, and Philotheou, on the buildings that can be related to the ktetoric activity of St Sava of Serbia (according to his biographies), along with a brief overview of the relevant material in Chilandar.

• Тријић Владан, Кодиколошки осврт на српске повеље Хиландарског архива
Trijić Vladan, Codicological observations on the Serbian charters in the Chilandar archive
The paper presents unsystematic codicological observations on Serbian charters made during explorations in the archives of the Chilandar monastery and discusses the significance they may have for diplomatic analyses. The research covers 158 very diverse items from the Chilandar collection of Serbian charters, dating from the late 17th century. The selection, preparation and individual properties of the writing materials are analyzed, including watermarks on the paper, the use of various types of ink, and material traces of the writing process. It has been found that the process lasted for a certain period of time, as well as that it took place in several steps and could involve a number of participants. It was based on the principles of multiplication through copying and content reuse, which were crucial for the functioning of the written culture of the time, and on the techniques used to achieve this in books, either regularly or as needed: the dominant shape of a rectangle with a longer vertical side (carta transversa), i.e. text lines parallel to the shorter side of the page; the way of preparing materials for writing, ink preparation, the involvement of several scribes, comparing text models, types of errors and ways of correcting them, subsequent text additions or ornamentation, text edits, etc. Due to their peculiar character and limited length, examples of documentary texts also had their own specific features: as a rule, they conformed to a single-page, single-column layout; parchment remained in use over a long period and only its inner side was used; in some cases, ruled guidelines could extend across the whole sheet and not only in the section intended for writing; the use of different ink types was determined not only by aesthetic reasons or better readability of the text, but also by the drive towards achieving a luxurious effect; there is an apparent striving to transfer a long text on several consecutive sheets so as to avoid interruptions, which is more suited to scroll writing than to the codex, as a model form. Thanks to the direct insight, the significance of which is especially highlighted in the paper, some individual discoveries have been made – e.g. manuscript Chil. 39 is a parchment sheet a from which the text of a ruler’s document in Greek was scraped.

• Рајнхарт Јоханес, Дамјанов зборник (Бечки словенски рукопис бр. 24) : словенске паралеле и византијски извори
Reinhart Johanнes, Der Sammelband des Damjan (Codex Vindobonensis Slavicus No 24)
Der Sammelband des Damjan, eine serbisch-kirchenslavische Handschrift mit 310 Blatt aus dem 14. Jahrhundert, die ursprünglich im Athoskloster Hilandar aufbewahrt wurde, kam 1827 durch Kauf an die Wiener Hofbibliothek (heute: Österreichische Nationalbibliothek). Der Sammelband beinhaltet Väterhomilien für die Zeit von Ostern bis zum Sonntag Allerheiligen, es handelt sich also um ein Festhomiliar zum Blumentriodion. Die Mehrzahl der Texte sind Übersetzungen byzantinischer Autoren. Folgende Autoren sind belegt: Amphilochios von Ikonium, Basilios von Seleukia, Gregor von Antiochien, Diadochos von Photike, Pseudo-Epiphanios von Zypern, Pseudo-Eusebios von Alexandrien, Johannes Chrysostomos, Kyrill von Jerusalem, Leontios von Jerusalem, Proklos von Konstantinopel und Severian von Gabala. Daneben sind je eine Predigt von Johannes dem Exarchen und Klemens (Kliment) von Ochrid sowie das aus dem Lateinischen übersetzte apokryphe Nicodemus- Evangelium vorhanden, insgesamt 34 Texte. Eine Reihe von Texten wurde bereits in altkirchenslavischer Zeit übersetzt, was sich aus ihrer Präsenz im Codex Clozianus und Codex Suprasliensis, aber auch in einer Reihe alter kirchenslavischer Handschriften (z.B. Uspenskij sbornik, Mihanović-Homiliar, Jagić-Zlatoust, German-Sammelband) ergibt. Jedoch muss die Übersetzung einer Anzahl von Texten auf Grund von sprachlichen Merkmalen erst später entstanden sein. Diese Texte gehen teilweise auf mittelbulgarische Vorlagen zurück. Der Damjan-Sammelband enthält etliche Übersetzungen von byzantinischen Originalen, die im Clavis patrum graecorum nicht verzeichnet sind. Diese Übersetzungen sollten in einem künftigen Supplement-Band. der CPG unbedingt berücksichtigt werden.

• Συμεών Διονυσιάτης Γέρων — Βαφειάδης Κωνσταντίνος, Σέρβοι χορηγοὶ καὶ καλλιτέχνες στὴν Ἱερὰ Μονὴ Χιλανδαρίου καὶ στὴν Μονὴ τοῦ Ἁγίου καὶ Μεγάλου Μετεώρου κατὰ τὸ Βʹ μισὸ τοῦ 14ου αἰῶνα
Старац Симеон Дионисијатски — Константин Вафијадис, Срби добротвори и уметници у манастирима Хиландар и Велики Метеор током друге половине XIV века
Στο πλαίσιο εξετάσεως εικόνων της μονής Χιλανδαρίου και των κελλίων αυτής στις Καρυές του Αγίου Όρους, εν σχέσει με την τιμή του αγίου Σάββα, αρχιεπισκόπου Σερβίας, οι γράφοντες εντόπισαν αξιοσημείωτες συγγένειες μεταξύ συγκεκριμένων εικόνων και τοιχογραφιών της αθωνικής μονής με αντίστοιχες της μονῆς του Αγίου και Μεγάλου Μετεώρου στη Θεσσαλία. Το γεγονός τούτο είναι άξιο μελέτης, καθόσον τα δύο μοναστήρια ιδρύθηκαν με την πρωτοβουλία και την συνδρομή σέρβων ηγεμόνων. Αλλά δεν είναι μόνον αυτό: ορισμένες εκ των βυζαντινών αυτών εικόνων μαρτυρούν εμμέσως για τους ιστορικούς δεσμούς των δύο παλαιγενών μοναστηριών, ιδίως μετά το 1345, οπότε τόσο το Άγιον Όρος όσον και τα Μετέωρα ευρίσκονται υπό σερβική εξουσία και κηδεμονία.

• Božinović Vladimir, The sculptural decoration of Chilandar's outer narthex
Божиновић Владимир, Скулпторална декорација хиландарске спољне припрате

• Јовановић Томислав Ж., Житије Јована Лествичника у најстаријим српским преписима хиландарске збирке и у Браничевској лествици
Jovanović Tomislav Ž., The Life of John Climacus in the earliest Serbian manuscript copies in the Chilandar collection and in the Braničevo Ladder
The paper presents a textological study of the three earliest Serbian manuscript  copies of The Life of John Climacus, held by the Chilandar Monastery, and compares  them to the same section in the Braničevo Ladder. The Chilandar manuscripts  covered by this research date from the second half of the 14th century and bear  accession numbers 180, 182, and 476. The Braničevo Ladder dates from 1434 and  was commissioned by Despot Đurađ Branković. It is held by the Museum of the  Serbian Orthodox Church under accession number 97. The place of the Life in the  above-mentioned copies of the Ladder is not the same: in some manuscripts, it is  at the very beginning, and in others, it is placed after the table of contents or after  the Epistle of John of Raithu to John of Sinai. While the copies from the Chilandar  monastery are very similar in textological terms, with slight deviations, the Braničevo  Ladder belongs to a group of texts based on a different Slavic translation, probably  made on Mount Athos. The textological investigation of the Life of John Climacus  based on the above-mentioned manuscript copies reveals the breadth of approach  in translating the same literary work from Greek to Slavic. The text of the Life  edited for publication based on the Chilandar manuscript copy under accession  number 180 is provided in the appendix of this paper. It is also compared to other  manuscript copies and observed differences are highlighted.

• Ракић Зоран, Квадратне заставе у орнаментици српских рукописа XVI века у библиотеци манастира Хиландара
Rakić Zoran, Square headpieces in the ornamentation of Serbian 16th-century manuscripts held by the Chilandar Monastery Library
The paper discusses the illumination of ten Serbian manuscripts dating from between the 1520s and the end of the 16th century, held by the library of the Chilandar monastery. This group of manuscripts includes six Tetraevangelia (nos 5, 6, 37, 38, 68, and 69), a Psalter with commentary (no 92), a Praxapostolos (no 101), the translation of the Panoplia dogmatike (Dogmatic Armoury) by Euthymios Zygabinos (no 186), and the Chilandar Commemoration Book (no 510). The chief decoration of these manuscripts are large square headpieces filled with complex interlacing and vegetal motifs, rendered in the spirit of earlier Byzantine solutions and decorations in the manuscripts by Vladislav the Grammarian. These lavish headpieces are filled with intertwined tendrils and ribbons, which are radially arranged from the centre to form complex, symmetrical patterns with a rosette, cross, lozenge, or diagonals as underlying shapes. The headpieces are marked by the flawless drawing, assuredness in rendering, and harmonious colours. Keeping in mind that the square headpieces in the 16th-century manuscripts held by Chilandar have not been fully explored, the paper presents a detailed description and analysis. Furthermore, it focuses on determining the origin of and classifying their decorative patterns, as well as on identifying the parallels that can be found for this type of headpieces in Serbian and Balkan book ornamentation between the 14th and 17th centuries.  

• Фотић Александар, Хиландарци и Јевреји (XVI–XVII век)
Fotić Aleksandar, The monks of the Chilandar Monastery and Jews (16th-17th centuries)
In the period of Ottoman rule, Orthodox Christians in the Balkans followed economic trends and behaved according to existing laws. The elders from the Chilandar monastery, as well as all Athonite monks, acted accordingly. If the monks had some religious prejudices towards Jews, just like towards Muslims, these were never associated with business relations. Ottoman documents from the archive of the Chilandar monastery bear evidence to highly developed trade dealings, credit transactions, as well as the presence of Jewish merchants on Mount Athos. The monastic fraternity of Chilandar took out loans from Jewish creditors, usually those from Thessaloniki and Siderokavsia, especially in case of large sums that were difficult to obtain from other sources. It seems that they pledged their estates (metochia) until the payment of their debts, if Jewish creditors who for a time governed the large Chilandar metochion in Üç Ev (Neochorion, Kalamaria) are to be believed. The largest loans were taken out during the period of the so-called “confiscation affair” (1568/1569), when the monastic community of Chilandar (just like all other monasteries in the Empire) was forced to purchase its own estates from the state. Jewish creditors sometimes charged unlawful interest rates, as evidenced by disputes held at kadı courts. There are examples showing that the hegumens of Chilandar voluntarily took Jews for their legal representatives (vekils) in real estate transactions, which needed to be registered at the kadi court. They clearly trusted the Jews as financial experts. Their commercial expertise and ability to raise large funds in a short period of time made the Jews useful business partners of the Chilandar monastery.

• Миљковић Бојан, Арсеније Еласонски и Хиландар
Miljković Bojan, Arsenios of Elassona and Chilandar Monastery
Archbishop Arsenios tried his hand at various types of literary work: diplomatics, hymnography, epistolography, epigraphy and historiography. His works also contain abundant autobiographical information, due to which the date of his birth is almost exactly known – the first half of January 1549, in a village near Trikkala. He was born into a family of a priest and he had four elder brothers, two of whom were also archpriests and the other two were hieromonachoi. Around 1570, Arsenios attended the well-known monastic school in Trikkala, where he was tonsured. He became a member of the fraternity of the Thessalian Dousikou monastery, founded by Arsenios’ grandfather and uncle. It was in Dousikou monastery that the he was ordained a hieromonachos in 1578/1579. Immediately afterwards, upon invitation by Patriarch Jeremiah II, he moved to Constantinople, where he served at the Patriarchal Church of the Virgin Pammakaristos over the following five years. He was ordained the Bishop of Elassona and Domeniko on 21 February 1584. Only a year and a half later, in the second half of 1585, he left the Ottoman Empire for good as an archbishop and the head of a Patriarch’s mission. Having successfully completed a mission at the imperial court in Moscow, on his way back to the Ottoman Empire, he stayed in Lviv, where he would teach at the local seminary for the following two years. He joined the entourage of the Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah II, who enthroned the first Russian Patriarch Job on 26 January 1589 in Moscow. With the permission of Tsar Feodor I Ioannovich, Arsenios settled permanently in Moscow and took an active part in the life of the Russian Church. He became the chieftain of the Cathedral of Archangel Michael in the Kremlin, the sepulchral church of the Moscow great princes and tsars. Being the Archbishop at the Archangel Cathedral, the area of his jurisdiction included the Diocese of Tver and Kashin since 1613. After almost two decades of dedicated service in this court church, in 1615, he was appointed the archbishop of a new diocese – the Archbishopric of Suzdal and Tarusa, at the head of which he remained until his death on 13 April 1625. He was an avid donor to religious establishments: in Moscow and its wider surroundings, he sponsored the construction and mural decoration of ten churches and chapels, while constantly sending gifts from Russia to numerous churches and monasteries throughout the Orthodox Christian world. These include the Serbian monastery of Chilandar, on Mount Athos, which received Arsenios’ gifts on two occasions. First on 17 February 1592, in Moscow, Arsenios handed over to the Chilandar Archimandrite Gregory a lavishly decorated Russian Tetraevangelion and an icon of the Holy Virgin belonging to an interesting iconographic type: the Theotokos is shown with Christ Child in her arms, while the Infant Christ holds with his both hands the red thread tied to the leg of the dove of the Holy Spirit standing on Christ’s left hand. Arsenios appeared as a donor to Chilandar for the second time three years later, when he sent to the monastery a rather small, cased icon showing Christ worshiped by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist, in bustlength, against a leafy vine on a golden background, and the twelve Apostles below.

• Golac Andrijana, The Influence of Mount Athos on the representations of the Works of mercy in the Zrze Monastery
Голац Андријана, Утицај Свете Горе на представе Дела хришћанског милосрђа у манастиру Зрзе

• Тодић Бранислав, О хиландарским повељама у Сремским Карловцима
Todić Branislav, Chilandar charters in Sremski Karlovci
Before 1761, the Chilandar hieromonk Timotej (Jovanović) brought several medieval  charters to Sremski Karlovci (Karlowitz), without the knowledge and approval of  the monastery administration. The same year, some of them were taken over by  Prohegumen Pajsije and returned to the monastery. The charters were brought for  the theologian and historian Jovan Rajić, who was at the time a teacher at the Latin  School in Sremski Karlovci, and who needed them as a resource while preparing the  monumentally conceived History of Various Slavic Peoples, Notably the Bulgarians,  Croats, and Serbs, published in four volumes three decades later. Rajić stayed in  Hilandar in 1758 seeking to collect historical sources, but he did not manage to get  access to the charters on that occasion, so he found a way to have them brought to  Sremski Karlovci. It was at Chilandar that he read them, and it was there that he  copied six charters to be used in his book. In line with the spirit of the time, he paid  greater attention to the literature than to sources. Due to this, he cited information  from charters in notes, to support his account in the discussion section of the book.  Regardless of this, Jovan Rajić is merited as the first Serbian historian to use the  Chilandar charters in a book guided by scholarly ambitions. The author of this paper demonstrates that Hieromonk Timotej (Jovanović) brought  to Jovan Rajić eleven Chilandar documents: a manuscript copy of the Karyes Typikon,  a collective charter of King Stefan Dušan to the Chilandar monastery, a manuscript  copy of King Milutin’s founding charter for the pyrgos in Chrusia, a manuscript  copy of the charter of Emperor Dušan on Livada and Paleokometica, Emperor  Dušan’s charter on the boundaries of the Chilandar estates in Serbia and Romania,  a manuscript copy of the charter of Emperor Dušan on the boundaries of the Chi landar estates on Mount Athos, Prince Lazar’s charter on the Chilandar infirmary,  Vuk Branković’s charter on the villages of Gornja Gadimlja and Donja Gadimlja,  a manuscript copy of the charter issued by Mara Branković and her sons on the  village of Orahovac, Mara Branković’s charter on Dubrovnik’s income, and the  charter of a Vlach aristocrat to Chilandar. In 1761, Prohegumen Paisije managed to return to the Chilandar monastery no  more than seven charters. The others were retained in Sremski Karlovci and are now  held by the Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Belgrade; these namely  include Vuk Branković’s charter on Gornja Gadimlja and Donja Gadimlja, Emperor  Dušan charter on Livada and Paleokometica, and his charter on the Chilandar es tates in Serbia and Romania, while the founding charter for King Milutin’s pyrgos  in Chrusia, was lost in the meantime  

• Παπάγγελος Ιωακείμ, Η δωρεα του Μιλος Οβρενοβιτς προς τους Αγιορειτες (1835)
Папангелос Иоаким, Поклон Милоша Обреновића Светогорцима (1835)
Στην παρούσα μελέτη δημοσιεύεται «ὁλοσφράγιστον» έγγραφο της Ιεράς Κοινότητος του Αγίου Όρους του 1835, ευχαριστήριο προς τον τότε ηγεμόνα της Σερβίας Μίλος Ομπρένοβιτς, το οποίο φυλάσσεται στο «Αρχείο της Σερβίας». Επίσης, δημοσιεύονται διάφορα αδημοσίευτα κείμενα ευρισκόμενα στους κώδικες και τα έγγραφα διαφόρων αγιορειτικών μονών, τα οποία επιβεβαιώνουν και συμπληρώνουν τις πληροφορίες που περιέχει το «ὁλοσφράγιστον». 

• Џелебџић, Дејан, Непознато писмо Свештене општине Свете Горе Атонске кнезу Милошу Обреновићу из 1859. године
Dželebdžić Dejan, An unknown letter from 1859 by the Holy Community of Mount Athos sent to prince Miloš Obrenović
This paper presents the Greek text and the Serbian translation of the letter dis patched on 19 March 1859 by the Holy Community of Mount Athos to Prince Miloš Obrenović, congratulating him on his return to the princely throne. The letter, kept by the National Museum in Belgrade, is thematically related to a letter from 1835, which is also published in this volume of Hilandarski zbornik (see Ἰω ακεὶμ Αθ. Παπάγγελος, Η δωρεά του Μίλος Οβρένοβιτς προς τους Αγιορείτες). Through a detailed comparison and analysis of the diplomatic, sphragistic, and linguistic features of the two letters, significant changes in the practice of the office of the Holy Community have been observed in a quarter-century span. It has been observed that in the 1859 letter only the first five monasteries on Mount Athos and two other smaller monasteries used the same seal as in 1835, while the others used a different seal. A comparison of the linguistic differences between the two letters shows that the 1859 letter was written in Katharevousa, which is the reason why it shows significantly fewer demotic features than the 1835 letter