Τετάρτη 27 Απριλίου 2022

Хиландарски Зборник 12 / Recueil de Chilandar 12


Садржај – Table de matières / Summaries

• Калић, Јованка. “Растко Немањић, истраживања”
Kalić, Jovanka. “Rastko Nemanjić – Research.”
• Благојевић, Милош. “Хиландарски поседи на Косову и Метохији (XII-XV век)”
Blagojević, Miloš. “Chilandar estates in Kosovo and Metohija (12th-15th centuries).”
• Bogdanović, Jelena. “Some Additional Observations on the Original Tomb of St. Simeon at Hilandar and its Significance for the Architectural History of the Monastery”
Богдановић, Јелена. “Првобитни гроб св. Симеона и његов значај за историју архитектуре манастира Хиландар.”
• Pavlikianov, Kyrill. “Unknown Slavic Charter of the Serbian Despot John Ugleša in the Archive of the Athonite Monastery of Vatopedi”
Павликијанов, Кирил. “Непознат словенски акт српског деспота Јована Угљеше из Архива атонског манастира Ватопеда.”
• Бубало, Ђорђе. “Прилози српској дипломатици”
Bubalo, Djordje. “Four Studies on Serbian Diplomatics.”
• Јовановић, Томислав. “Карејски и Хиландарски типик у руском преводу из збирке Белокриницког манастира”
Jovanović, Tomislav. “Karayas’ and Chilandar typicons in the Russian translation from the Belokrinici monastery.”
• Ракић, Зоран. “Црква Светог Саве Српског у Хиландару”
Rakić, Zoran. “The Church of St. Sava in Chilandar.”
• Бобров, Юрий & Милькович Боян. “Карейская Богородица Млекопитательница. Краткая история и превоначальный вид”
Бобров, Јуриј & Миљковић, Бојан. “Карејска Богородица Млекопитатељница. Кратка историја и првобитни изглед.”
• Иванић, Бранка. “Прилог тумачењу сликаног програма параклиса Светог Ђорђа на пиргу Светог Ђорђа у Хиландару”
Ivanić, Branka. “Additional Interpretation of the Iconographic Programme on the Parecclesion of St. George’s Tower at Chilandar.”
• Fotić, Aleksandar. “Xenophontos in the Ottoman Documents of Chilandar (16th-17th century)”
Фотић, Александар. “Ксенофонт у османским документима манастира Хиландар (16-17. век).”
• Стошић, Љиљана. “Једна непозната илустрована Библија из ризнице манастира Хиландара”
Stošić, Ljiljana. “An Unknown Illustrated Bible from the Chilandar Treasury.”
• Peno, Vesna. “Hilandar Church Chanting in 19th Century in the Frame of Mount Athos Music Tradition.”
Пено, Весна. “Светогорска музичка традиција и црквено појање у Хиландару у XIX веку.”

Kalić Jovanka, 
“Rastko Nemanjić – Research.”
The author examines main Ьiographical facts about the of Rastko Nemanjic, the son Serbian monarch Stefan Nemanja (1166-1196), better known as Saint Sava the arcћbishop of Serbian Orthodox Сhuгсh. Little is known about the childhood and early youth of prince Rastko. His biogгapheгs, Chilandaг monks Domentianus and Tћeodosius, made no гесоrd of the year оr the place of his biгtћ. Recently revealed historical data established the year 1175 as the one in which Rastko was born, in Ras County, which was the seat of the Serbian state and its church at the time. That was the area around the cathedral church of the bishop of Ras, dedicated to the apostles Peter and Paul (present-day Church of St Peter nеаr Novi Раzаr). Not far from it was the Nemanjic crown property and court palaces of dynasty members. One court was in the place knowп uпder the name of Dezevo, in the 13th century, but it was not until after thorough aгcheological works hаd been completed that а church, which belonged to а wideг complex of the Nemanjic court estate, was discovered. А vеrу systematic aгchive and field studies (of settlements, roads, micrtoponymy, folklore, natural resources, medieval material evidence, etc.), conducted over several decades bу а team of scientists from the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade, produced detailed documentation about the homeland of Saint Sava. Before going to Mount Athos (1192), prince Rastko was given а court (palaces) bу his parents. According to а local legend, the court was situated in the place called Miscice, on the banks of the river Dezevska, Ras County. Preliminary excavation works on а locality in that village revealed tгaces а single-nave chшrch tћat might have been belonged to the court complex. Researched were other localities, too, in this area of gгeat importance for the history and culture of Seгbian people. In the end, the author also mentions the rоlе which the monastery of St Geoгge (Djurdjevi Stupovi) in Ras might have played during the spiгitual development of the young Rastko. According to the inscription discovered on the church's west portal. The monastery was built during 1170-1171. This in fact was the first endowment founded bу а sovereign, Stefan Nemanja, Rastko's father. That was also where the young prince had the first contact with monastic life to which he, lateг on, committed himself. 

Blagojevic Milos
Chilandar estates in Kosovo and Metohija (12th - 15th centuries)

In 1198 Serbian monastery Chilandar on Mount Athos, founded by the monk Simeon, former Serbian monarch Stefan Nemanja and his son, monk Sava, was bequeathed nine villages around the town of Prizren, a square, two vineyards, four apiaries, one mountain pasture (,,mountain"), a large number of professional Vlach cattle-breeders, 170 households, and various other goods. The administrative centre for the monastery's land, or metochs, was in the village of Velika Hoca. Two years later, Serbian ruler Stefan Nemanjic, the son and successor of Stefan Nemanja, donated 12 villages in Hvostno, Northern Metohija, with one square and two vineyards. He also appropriated the founder's rights which became hereditary during the reign of the Nemanjic dynasty thus making every Serbian ruler in office, king or tsar, the founder of Chilandar. The administrative centre for the newly acquired metochs became the village of Krusa, Northern Metohija. With Serbian kings and tsars replacing one another on the Nemanjic throne, and after the dynasty become extinct (1371), Chilandar acquired new rulers but also new founders who always donated more lands, villages, vineyards, pastures, churches and monasteries. A study shows that, during the Middle Ages, Chilandar acquired the total of 72 villages, three Vlach settlements or ,,katuns", five churches, four monasteries and other properties in Metohija, and 24 villages and some land in Kosovo. Evidence shows that Chilandar assets acquired in Kosovo and Metohija consisted of 96 village communities, six churches, five monasteries, four large pastures in lower regions and eleven in the mountains, eight vineyards, a number of apiaries, as well as some isolated land estates and considerable amount of silver or gold money.

Bogdanovic Jelena
The original tomb of St Simeon and its significance for the architectural history of Hilandar monastery

Stefan Nemanja (1113?-1199), the sainted founder of the Serbian medieval dynasty, was entombed at Hiiandar as monk Simeon most likely following the practices established for the members of Byzantine high aristocracy, founders of monasteries and abbots. By comparing available evidence from Hiiandar, Vatopedi, Great Lavra and Zigos monasteries, the paper examines the possibility that the original tomb of St. Simeon might have been either within a separate funerary chapel or within the mesonyktikon of the older katholikon. The so-called "St. Simeon's cell," which is physically detached from the present katholikon, originally may also have been connected with the older katholikon. If this hypothesis is sustainable, then the original Hilandar katholikon may have been south of the surviving fourteenth-century katholikon, which was re-built under St. Simeon's great-grandson, King Milutin (r. 1282-1321) possibly between 1311 and 1316. On that occasion, more than hundred years after transter of St. Simeon's remains from Hilandar to Studenica monastery in Serbia, and within a huge building campaign, King Milutin may have honored the memory of his sainted great grandfather, by preserving the physical location of St. Simeon's grave at Hilandar, but enclosing it within an altered architectural solution following the pattern of the Nemanjic burials, in the southwestern bay of the church naos. Such a disposition was foreign to the Athonites but not to the already established tradition in Serbia. The already noticed highly unusual architecture of King Milutin's katholikon, which lacks subsidiary spaces, would in that case be a result of programmatic mixture of these two traditions. The proposed reconstruction of the initial and altered architectural settings for St. Simeon's tomb in Hilandar simultaneously revises our understanding of the active role of Hilandar monastery in the transmission of spiritual and architectural ideas from and to Mt. Athos.

Pavlikianov Kyrill
Unknown slavic charter of the Serbian despot John Uglesa in the archive of the athonite monastery of Vatopedi 

The article offers to the scholarly public a diplomatic edition of an unknown Slavic charter, which was issued by the Despot John Ugljesa for the Athonite Monastery of Vatopedi in 1369-1371. The text of the document has been analyzed according to the rules adopted in the French series Archives de l'Athos. All the prosopographical , topographical , philological and historical data contained in the act have been carefilly scrutinized. The basic conclusion of the article is that Ugljesa had donated to Vatopedi a nameless and, probably, abandoned village on the coast of Lake Bolbe near Rentina. It was the former military property (pronoia) of one Landzo or Lantzarettos - a noble who in the 1340s is known to have saved the life of the Emperor John VI Kantakuzenos during a battle against the Bulgarian lord of the Rhodopi region, Momcilo, in vicinity of Gumuldzhina.   

Bubalo Djordje
Four studies on Serbian diplomatics 
The paper contains four studies proposing solutions for certain disputable issues of Serbian diplomatics.

Jovanovic Tomislav 
Karayas and Chilandar Typicons in russian translation from Belokrinica monastery collection

The Belokrinica manuscript collection, housed in the library of Russian Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg, under number 13 lists the Russian translation of The Chilandar and Karayas' Typicons, compiled by St Sava of Serbia. The typicons are incorporated in a 16 century book collection, pages la to 63a. It is not known who, where and when translated the typicons into the Russian language. A Russian monk from Mount Athos is believed to have done it. It is also uncertain whether these are autographs of the Russian translation or merely copies of it. The two typicons proffered guidance on how to organize monastic life at the monastery of Belokrinica, present day Ukraine. The title of the translated Karayas' Typicon suggests that the script represents the second "charter of St Sava of Serbia for a small monastery in which he himself lived". The end of the translation also provides a description of St Sava's seal. The Russian translation of The Chilandar Typicon has been unheard of in the literature world until now. About 15 years ago Vladimir Gudkov drew attention to the late 17 century Russian copy of The Karayas' Tvpicon, housed in St Petersburg's State Library. The translation, made by the Russian hierodeacon Damascene from Mount Athos, demonstrated the need of the Russian monastic community to own translation of such a valuable typicon which the Serbian monastic communities on Mount Athos had already adopted and lived by. Once again this stands to prove that spiritual links, forged between the South Slavs and the Russians, continue to exist.   

Rakic Zoran
The Church of St Sava in Chilandar

The parekklesion of St Sava in Chilaпdaг was built and paiпted in 1779 witl1 the funds contributed Ьу а group of donors from Vidin and the village of Koprivstica in Bulgaria. It is located in the western part of tћe monastic complex, above the parekklession of St Demetrius, which was built апd painted at the same time. It is а small structure rectaпgulaг in plan, with а narrow sanctuary area, а nave with а dome resting on fouг pilasteгs апd а bay on the western епd. In fгопt of the nave is а vestibule wich serves as a pronaos. 

Both the vestibule апd the interior of the church аге paiпted. The iconographic programme of the fгescoes is of exceptioпal interest. In the lowest zопе of tће nave аге the representatioпs of а number of South Slavonic, particularly Serbian saints. In the saпctuary аге а coшposition showing the Liturgy and representations of individual figures of bishops. Busts of martyrs are shown in the medallions in the second zone and on the intradoses of the attached arches. Six scenes illustrating the life of St Sava, the patron of the church, аге painted on the soutl1 and north walls of the nave. The other surfaces illustrate the Great Feasts and Christ's parables (The Good Shepheгd, Ten Virgins, The Soweг, The Good Samaritan, The Wide and the Naгrow Path). lп the dome are represeпted Christ Pantocrator, the heavenly Liturgy and the Prophets, and the vault in the west Ьау contains coшpositions glorifying the Viгgiп - the Virgin Platitera, the Viгgiп Fountain of Life, апd the Descent of the Virgin iпto Hell. The vestibule originally coпtained, in addition to the founder's portгait, а coшposition illustrating Let everything that has breath praise the Lord (Psalшs, 148-150), and fourteen scenes from the cycle of the Revelation, of which only was extant until recently. 

The painters who executed the frescoes used various models: the cycle of St Sava was modelled on the frescoes of Geoгgije Mitrofaпovic in the Chilandar refectory, and the representations of the Soutћ Slavonic saints were painted after the engraviпgs in Hгistofer Dzefaгovic's book Stematografija. The illustrations of the Parbles with their moral injunctions were an echo of the Baгoque ideas which had begun to penetrate the Athonite art by the епd of tће eighteenth century. 

The stylistic conceptions of the painters of the Churcћ of St Sava of Seгbia are closely related to the trends of the post-Byzantine paintiпg on Mount Athos and iп the broader Balkan hinterland. The details takeп over from the West or from Cгetan art are rare in their works. Coпcerned with the content rather than the beauty of forms, and not particularly knowledgeable, these paiпters used а simplifies artistic idiom. Their compositioпs, in spite of theiг pronounced decorative and narrative character, are uпsophisticated, their dгaughtsmanship is uпsure, and their colouring is restricted to а few basic line. 

Icoпostasis of this church dates from same time as tће fгescoes (1779). It had the Royal Doors, five main icons - St John the Forerunner, the Virgin, Christ, St Sava Enthroned, St Simeon of SегЬiа- and, in the uрреr part, Deisis апd а painted cгoss. The icons were the woгk of the most accomplished member of the gгoup of masteгs who painted the chruch. 

The гiсhlу decoгated wooden structuгe of the iconostasis was made by а local woodcarviпg workshop. The parekklesia of St Sava of Serbia and St Demetrius were heavily damaged in the devastating fire that broke out in the monastery in March 2004. Some of their vaults and walls collapsed, the surviving parts of the frescoes lost their colouring, and the partitioning structures of the iconostases were reduced to ashes.  

Bobrov Jurij & Miljković Bojan
The Icon of Holy Virgin the Galaktotrophousa in Karyes. Brief history and original appearance

The icon of the Mother of God, which is kept in the cell of Saint Sava the Sanctified in Karyes, Typikario, repeats the ancient iconographic type whose roots go back to the pre-Christian art of the eastern Mediterranean. Its appearance in Christian art is based on the basic postulates of the dogma of the incarnation of the Logos. Although the theological justification for the representation of the Mother breastfeeding the Infant appears in the writings of the first Christian fathers, this iconographic type is not often found in Byzantine art. The Karean icon is associated with a legend according to which it belonged to Saint Sava the Sanctified, and the Serbian archbishop, Saint Sava, brought it from Palestine to Mount Athos according to the same legend. During the cleaning and conservation of the icon, in the summer of 2004, the inscription on its lower edge became more legible, which clearly speaks of the time of its creation and the client, hieromonk Maxim Daskal from the Pec Patriarchate, who commissioned the icon in the ninth decade of the 17th century. Already after the first hundred years of its existence, the icon was especially revered. That is when her first replicas were made, and on the iconostasis of the newly built church in the Hermitage, the Mother of God was unusually placed to the right of the royal doors, which additionally testifies to the intensive development of her cult. On that occasion, that is, at the beginning of the 19th century, the icon was partially copied, and the latest, above-mentioned conservation works, restored this part to its original appearance. Attached is the technical report on the cleaning and conservation of the "Karejska Bogorodka Mlekopitateljnica".

Fotic Aleksandar
Xenophontos in the ottoman archive of Chilandar (16th-17th c.)
Almost as a rule the archives of any Athonite monastery cover a part of the history of at least a few other monasteries.  Mostly relating to monastic estates, the preserved documents usually refer to their boundaries and the disputes over them. These were likely to arise without the monasteries necessarily being adjacent, as evidenced by the example of Xenophontos and Chilandar. Decisive was the fact whether some of their metochia shared a common boundary, either on Mount Athos or elsewhere. A rich collection of Ottoman documents kept in Chilandar offers a wealth of data on several Athonite monasteries. Fortunately for the elucidation of its history, Xenophontos holds an important place among them. Xenophontos and its monks are mentioned in more then twenty Ottoman documents. Their number becomes remarkably larger when the documents are added that are indirectly related to the major controversy that arose between Chilandar and Xenophontos. 

Ivanić, Branka. 
Additional Interpretation of the Iconographic Programme on the Parecclesion of St. George’s Tower at Chilandar

The abstract discusses liturgical texts that were used as a literary subject in the iconographic programme of St George's Chapel at Chilandar. The illustration of The Office of Separation was put in a simple context at Chilandar. The cycle depicting Great Feasts, prophets and standing figures of desert-dwellers is featured on the inside of the parccclesion. Two more cycles, one dedicated to the founder of the chapel, St George, and the other containing the illustrated poem The Office of Separation of the Soul from the Body, are found in the hall which surrounds the little church from three sides. 

Monks' figures, portrayed in the first zone of the chapel, are in fact reminiscence of church services celebrated during morning services on Cheese-fare Saturdays during which Egypt, Libya and Tivaida are celebrated as paradise, and monks revered as ange ls. It has been noticed that changes in the liturgical yearly cycle from Octoechos singing into canon ical, and from Lenten Triodion into Floral Triodion, take place on a Cheese-fare Saturday. 

This illustrated cycle from the 12th century Greek synapte suggests that another liturgical book, apart from The Book of Offices, and some fragments from The Book of Psalms (the rites of which also offered The Office of Separation of the Soul from the Body) were also in existence. The programme themes at Chilandar chapels follow preparations for the beginning of Lent as well as the daily memorial services for the dead. 

Stosic Liljana
An unknown illustrated Bible from the Chilandar treasury

The Collection of foreign books from the Chilandar Treasury contains an illustrated Bible, entered under no. 547 as an English book, without ornamented title sheets (frontispis) but with 127 preserved etchings. Judging from the signatures of the three engravers, Wouter Jonkman, Joannes Lamsvelt and Matthias Scheitz, the book in question is most probably the Dutch Illustrated Bible (Bilderbibel) published in German, English and French by Gerart Hoet in Amsterdam, 1728. Etching illustrations from the Old and the New Testaments, executed in the manner of baroque eclecticism, were reflected in the works of prominent Serbian artists who were active in the first half of the 18th century and all through the second half of the 19th century (H. Zefarovic, C. Tenecki, N. Neskovic, T. Kracun, J. Orfelin, S. Gavrilovic, M. Zivkovic, A. Teodorovic, P. Djurkovic, D. Avramovic, P. Simic, D. Popovic, Lj. Aleksandrovic). Bearing in mind that those were the artists of various style inclinations who also belonged to different art periods, and who all copied details out of West European illustrated Bibles, it seems that this graphically unfamiliar specimen, printed in Amsterdam, would have to be added to the corpus of the already known Dutch and German Bibles that were used in the 18th century Serbian art (N. Visscher called Piscator, Ch. Weigel, J. U. Krauss, F. A. Killian and K. Luyken). 

Peno Vesna
Hilandar church chanting in 19th century in the frame of Mount Athos music tradition

Deep and close contacts on the field of 19th music practice between Hilandarions and other Mount Athas monks are discussed in this study. In the light of the neume notation reform , that was done by Constantinople chanting teachers and theoreticians Gregorios, Chourmouzios and Chrysanthos , Mount Athos chanters, composers and scribes started to write down church hymns in different sorts of musical manuscripts (Octoechoi, Anthologiai, Sticheraria). Hilandarion psaltes, as well as other Mount Athas musically educated monks, completed necessary chanting books for all church services directly after the reform was accepted in Constantinople Great Church. To improve the acceptance of the so called new method( = reformed neume notation) many Greek and Bulgarian monks wrote manuscripts in Church-Slavonic language for Hilandarian chanters. Nevertheless, in Hilandarion brotherhood there were few very ambitious and skilled musical scribes like Spiridon, Ioaseph, Vikentije, whose manuscripts contain pretty number of popular and original church melodies.